The Churches
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The exterior of St. Jude's is one of the masterpieces of European architecture of its time. In Lutyens's first design the church was to have a tall clerestory, and it was the need for economy rather than the Dame's demand that the church should conform more closely to the surrounding domestic architecture, that made him in the end bring the roof down so near to ground level (The British Architect for January, 1910 illustrates both designs, with an illuminating commentary). Enforced humility he avoided most skilfully, letting the roof itself set the monumental scale, with large dormer windows set in a kind of aedicule emphasising the vastness of its slopes.

Against this strong horizontal emphasis, Lutyens set his magnificent steeple, completed three years after the church as a sixtieth birthday present to the Dame from her friends and admirers. As Pevsner remarks, the brick detailing is an extraordinary mixture of Byzantine and Tudor. Clearly Lutyens was inspired by Bentley's campanile at Westminster Cathedral and he also must have had in mind (as Bentley did) the tower of Saint-Front at Perigeux. But the way in which grey brick and red brick is orchestrated in a subtly tapering scale of proportions is entirely Lutyens's own. It is also typical of him that the individual parts of the steeple are so carefully distinguished from each other - for example, a short vertical octagon of brickwork lifts the spire clear of the rest of the tower.

Inside St. Jude's is disappointing, although it is still one of the best churches of its time. There is an unresolved duality between the Byzantine vaulting of the main axes and the over-elaborate timber trusses which spring from the diaphragm arches across the aisles. Undoubtedly much of the quality of Lutyens's proportions was lost in the grossly excessive application of murals by Walter Starmer in 1921-7. The pulpit is by Lutyens, the lectern in similar style by Herbert Welch (1914). The foundation stones of 1910 are by Eric Gill. The Lady chapel to the north-east was built first (1910), but the main chancel apse and the south-east chapel were added only in 1922-3, and the west was not erected until 1934-5.

The Free Church, also by Lutyens, is superficially similar (the same roof and dormers), except that it has a dome, surprisingly Italianate, if not Popish, in appearance. The inside is quite different: a cool white space with tall Tuscan columns, the floor sloping gradually down from the entrance. The east ends of the two churches are also quite different externally. St. Jude's has an extraordinary combination of hipped roofs. One over the chancel is raised slightly, like a sun visor, over a little window reminiscent of that at Lutyens's Heathcote, Ilkley; below it is the tall Crucifixion designed by him as the 1914-18 war memorial. The Free Church by contrast has an ingenious drawing board elevation building up from a low pediment over the vestries.

The vicarage and the manse are identical and U-shaped, Lutyens cleverly matching up the simple life of Nonconformity with the more luxurious Anglican requirements by dividing the manse into two separate houses which appear from the outside as one. The positions of vicarage and manse now seem curious, slightly askew from the axis of each church, with their U-shaped entrance fronts facing outwards. The explanation is that opposite each of them was to be an answering U-shaped block of flats forming a gateway to North and South Square.

Similarly a gateway at the west end of each church was never built. This was to consist in each case of a church hall set across the gap between the church and the houses, with wrought iron gates at each end. The church halls were never built in their intended positions, partly because the sites were too small, partly because the residents of the houses in North and South Squares did not wish to have the value of their property diminished by the presence of public entertainment on their doorstep, and, in the case of St. Jude's, partly because it was felt that a hall would be better sited, for mission purposes, in the poorer part of the parish.

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